As an innovation leader, the high tech sector has impacted how we communicate and access information, distribute products and services, and address critical societal problems. Because this sector is the source of an increasing number of jobs, it is particularly important that the U.
Situated Knowers Feminist epistemology conceives of knowers as situated in particular relations to what is known and to other knowers. What is known, and the way that it is known, thereby reflects the situation or perspective of the knower.
Here we are concerned with claims to know, temporarily bracketing the question of which claims are true or warranted.
Situated knowledge in general. Consider how people may understand the same object in different ways that reflect the distinct relations in which they stand to it.
People experience the world by using their bodies, which have different constitutions and are differently located in space and time. People have first-personal access to some of their own bodily and mental states, yielding direct knowledge of phenomenological facts about what it is like for them to be in these states.
Third parties may know these states only by interpreting external symptoms, imaginative projection, or obtaining their testimony. Emotions, attitudes, interests, and values. People often represent objects in relation to their emotions, attitudes and interests. A thief represents a lock as a frustrating obstacle while its owner represents the lock as a comforting source of security.
Personal knowledge of others.
People have different knowledge of others, in virtue of their different personal relationships to them. Such knowledge is often tacit, incompletely articulated, and intuitive. Like the knowledge it takes to get a joke, it is more an interpretive skill in making sense of a person than a set of propositions.
The German language usefully marks this as the distinction between Erkenntnis and Wissenschaft.
Because people behave differently toward others, and others interpret their behavior differently, depending on their personal relationships, what others know of them depends on these relationships. People have different skills, which may also be a source of different propositional knowledge.
An expert dog handler knows how to elicit more interesting behavior from an a dog than a novice does. Such know-how expresses a more sophisticated understanding of dogs on the part of the expert, and also generates new phenomena about dogs for investigation.
People have different styles of investigation and representation. What looks like one phenomenon to a lumper may look like three to a splitter. Background beliefs and worldviews. People form different beliefs about an object, in virtue of different background beliefs.
Differences in global metaphysical or political worldviews naturalism, theism, liberalism, marxism may also generate different beliefs about particulars on a more comprehensive scale.
Relations to other inquirers. People may stand in different epistemic relations to other inquirers—for example, as informants, interlocutors, students—which affects their access to relevant information and their ability to convey their beliefs to others.
These kinds of situatedness affect knowledge in several ways. Feminist epistemology focuses on how the social location of the knower affects what and how she knows. It is thus a branch of social epistemology.
Partly in virtue of their different ascribed identities, individuals occupy different social roles that accord them different powers, duties, and role-given goals and interests.
They are subject to different norms that prescribe different virtues, habits, emotions, and skills that are thought to be appropriate for these roles. They also acquire different subjective identities. One may simply know oneself to have certain ascribed identities. One may accept or endorse these identities, actively affirming the norms and roles associated with them.
Gender as a mode of social situation.In an article titled “Leader stereotypes match men more than women,” Catherine Kleiman quotes Alice Eagly, a psychology professor at Northwestern University who says that “it's bound to be challenging for women because there's a built-in role conflict" ().
In her highly influential essay, Sandra Bartky criticizes Foucault for failing to notice that disciplinary practices are gendered and that, through such gendered discipline, women’s bodies are rendered more docile than the bodies of men (, 65).
Women in Leadership: Performance and Interpersonal Consequences of Stereotype Threat in comparison to men, are continuing to find it more difficult to rise to positions of power. Gender and leader stereotypes may work against women attempting to pursue leadership in two ways, one from the perspective of others and one from the .
In an article titled "Leader stereotypes match men more than women," Catherine Kleiman quotes Alice Eagly, a psychology professor at Northwestern University who says that "it's bound to be challenging for women because there's a built-in role conflict" ().
The nation's pioneer land-grant university, Michigan State University is one of the top research universities in the world.
Home to nationally ranked and recognized academic, residential college, and service-learning programs, MSU is a diverse community of dedicated students and scholars, athletes and artists, scientists and leaders.
After seeing Margaret Murray's book The God of the Witches the leader of Ophite Cultus Satanas, women in Italy were more likely suspected of witchcraft than men. Subsequent artwork exhibiting witches tended to consistently rely on cultural stereotypes about these women.
These stereotypes were usually rooted in early Renaissance.