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The origin  of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. The Imperial exam based on merit  was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.
In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit.
This was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics.
This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty —which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation.
The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD The following Tang dynasty — adopted the same measures for drafting officials, and decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.
The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian  The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In the late 19th century the system came under increasing internal dissatisfaction, and it was criticized as not reflecting the candidate's ability to govern well, and for giving precedence to style over content and originality of thought.
The system was finally abolished by the Qing government in as part of the New Policies reform package. The Chinese system was often admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward.
Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase.
By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were falling short. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar.
The first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in GuangzhouChina argued in his Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China, published inthat "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only," and that the British must reform their civil service by making the institution meritocratic.
Influenced by the Chinese imperial examinations, the Northcote—Trevelyan Report of made four principal recommendations: It also recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine "mechanical" work, and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report's conclusions were immediately implemented, and a permanent, unified and politically neutral civil service was introduced as Her Majesty's Civil Service.
A Civil Service Commission was also set up in to oversee open recruitment and end patronage, and most of the other Northcote—Trevelyan recommendations were implemented over some years. This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services even under the stress of two world warsand responding effectively to political change.
It also had a great international influence and was adapted by members of the Commonwealth. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act established a modern civil service in the United States, and by the turn of the 20th century almost all Western governments had implemented similar reforms.Sheet17 SIC Link Alternate Title Green Skills Green Occupations Trades Notes Tasks Descriptors Specialisations Occupations Unit Groups Minor Groups Sub Major Groups.
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The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab.
This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency.
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